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Home-cooked food is getting more and more popular in the world today. Starter cultures – a specially selected range of lactic acid bacteria designed to acidify milk or cream to obtain the desired dairy products (sour cream, yogurt, kefir, fermented baked milk, cottage cheese, etc.). Lactic acid bacteria which were comprised in their constituent, were isolated from natural sources and they were characteristic of the normal intestinal biocenosis of population. As natural sources, we used a variety of products: animal milk (cow’s, goat’s, camel’s), bee products (honey, pollen), flowers (peonies, meadow grass), original milk products (syuz’ma, kefir grains, ayran, sour cream, cottage cheese, cheese).

Types of cheese

Talking about cheese, we can adduce several classifications of this product: according to the type of milk, according to the type of starter cultures, on the texture of the finished cheese, age and the aging process. But the most common in the culinary literature is the classification, in which cheeses are divided into the following types.

Fresh cheese

It does not take time to aging. It has the soft and moist texture. Taste – from delicate creamy to spicy. Well-known cottage cheese, ricotta, mozzarella, mascarpone, feta, cream cheese (cream-cheese), fromage blanc, cottage, Adygei and others refer to fresh cheeses.


Soft cheeses

Most often this type of cheese is ripen in moldy crust. The most famous and popular soft cheeses – brie, camembert and limburger. Crust mold is edible in most cases. Cheese can have a taste from light oil to spicy-hot with strong odor.


Semi-hard cheese

They have a denser texture than soft cheese, but you can just grate them on a coarse grater. Before ripening these cheeses are coated by wax or paraffin wax shell, which allows to retain more moisture. Time of ripening of semi-hard cheeses – from 1 to 6 months. This type includes Edam, Fontina, Tilsit cheese, Сheddar, Russian, Poshehonsky, Provolone and others.


Hard cheese

It has a dry and firm texture than semi-hard one. Excellent it is cut into slices and grated on a grater. Hard cheeses include Emmentaler, Gruyere, Gouda, Yalsberg and others.


Grater cheese

The most famous representatives of this type – parmesan (Parmigiano reggiano), pecorino romano and grana padano. Ripening time – up to 2 years. These cheeses have a hard crumbly texture and often prior to use they are rubbed on a fine grater.


Cheese with mold (blue cheeses)

There are many varieties of blue cheese. The most famous of them – Dorblue, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, Danish Blue Cheese, Grand bavareze, bergader. Blue cheese in texture depends on the variety and may be soft and uniform or, alternatively, hard and crumbly. In the preparation of this cheese it is inoculated with a spore of noble mold, then they make air channels in a cheese head that allow mold to grow in the cheese during ripening.